Opium poppies give us codeine and morphine, which can be altered to create heroin. They are four foot tall with fragile flowers which can be red, white or purple and are very pretty.
Opium is gathered from the skin of the seed pod, after the petals have fallen off but before the seed head dries up. They are cut and a milky white latex oozes out. This is the opium and before processing it contains between 7 and 15% morphine. It is a labour intensive crop which requires a lot of work and most farmers receive little of the profits from further down the production chain.
They have been cultivated in the near and middle east since at least 4000BC, with some people arguing it’s been used for over 10,000 years. By 3500 BC, the Sumerians who occupied Mesopotamia were calling it the plant of joy, using it as a mind altering substance and a medicine as well as trading it with other civilisations. The Romans took opium recreationally and in Arabia, because of the Islamic prohibition on alcohol, opium was used socially. As people began to move around and trade more, opium was taken into China where it was used medicinally from the 8th century to the 18th when pleasure took over. As we’ll see when we look at tea, this had a huge impact on the country.
“Take opium, mandragora and henbane in equal parts and mix with water,” a 12th-century treatise advised doctors. “When, you want to saw or cut a man,” it continued, “dip a rag in this, put it to his nostrils and he will sleep so deep that you may do what you wish.”
– A history of morphine
In the early 19th century, a German pharmacist managed to isolate the active ingredient from opium and called it “morphine” after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams and sleep who brought messages and prophesies from the gods to mortals through the medium of dreams*.
In 1856, Britain received £9 million of produce from China, including tea, but £6.7 million of this was paid for in opium or in silver which was linked to the opium trade. This was after the first opium war and on the cusp of the second and this trade would undermine china’s social and economic life as well as fuel corruption and smuggling. A high price to pay for a cup of tea…
Whilst addition to opium was known about in the 17th and 18th century, it was largely ignored and wasn’t until 1868 that Britain first attempted to curb opium use. By 1874 heroin had been discovered and was being marketed as a none addictive alternative to codeine by 1898…
Use of opiates tended to begin (and still does) with an illness or injury which in time led to addiction and recreational use. For example, Wilkie Collins lived in pain due to rheumatism and used opium to provide relief and help him sleep. Other writers also used it including Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who famously wrote Kubla Khan which he himself said was a description of “a sort of Reverie brought on by two grains of Opium, taken to check a dysentery.” Poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning suffered from intense pain in her spine and neck and began taking opium at an early age.
Today, opium poppies are grown legally in India, Turkey and Australia for the medical trade and illegally in Burma, Afghanistan and Columbia. In fact in 2010, Afghanistan produced 90% of the world’s illegal opium. As I mentioned, opium is a labour intensive crop and with so many farmers growing it in Afghanistan, buyers can keep the prices low. In 2002, 1kg of opium was $300 for the farmers, $800 for the Afghan buyer and $16,000 on the streets of Europe before conversion into heroin. For context, each poppy plant gives only a couple of grams of raw opium.
The trade in illegal opium means smuggling, bribing law enforcement, corruption and obviously the effects of use and addition for the end user. According to the poison garden, opium poppies are second only to tobacco in terms of numbers of deaths. It can cause death accidentally, when prescribed medication is taken in overdose, as a result of abuse and as a murder weapon.
Remember I’m talking here about illegal use. I want to be clear I’m not saying opium equals bad. It’s far more complicated than that. I use opium daily for my pain but it’s of a regulated dose, carefully monitored and hopefully isn’t cut with corruption or rat poison.
*My own use of morphine and my weird dreams mean this is something I want to return to through creative writing