When we think of insects in the bible, we tend to think of plagues of locusts and destruction, devastation and punishment. Alternatively you might think of examples where they are held up as pests. But they are also used as metaphors and occasionally they are just there as observations of actual insects.
The translation of the bible will affect your reading of insects. The King James version has 120 references to insects but more recent translations have put the number at 98 as a result of differing interpretations, changes include:
- The word translated as hornet in the king james version is now considered to be more likely the word panic.
- “Therefore will I be unto Ephraim as a moth, and to the house of Judah as rottenness” – “as a moth” has been changed to “as a festering sore”.
- Lice, in the context of the plagues, is now considered to be maggots; an animal which makes more sense in the context.
Translation difficulties can arise because words used include that for generic flying creature which could mean bird or it could be a flying insect. But where particular insect species are referred to there is less ambiguity.
Ants are mentioned as examples of industriousness, gathering food in preparation for winter in the book of proverbs. They are also held up as a creature which is small but wise along with other animals such as the locust.
Go to the ant, you sluggard, watch her ways and get wisdom, Proverbs 6.6
Bees are another specific inclusion with numerous references to honey eg land “flowing with milk and honey”. It was thought that bees were collectors of honey and that it was originally from the stars where it was a food of the gods. The bees collected it from dew on leaves and branches and were thought to store it in their hives. As with the ant, this industriousness became synonymous with the bee.
Flies on the other hand fare less well, something which is also the case in mythology.
Dead flies make the perfumer’s sweet ointment turn rancid and ferment; so can a little folly make wisdom lose its worth. Ecclesiastes 0:1
If you do not let my people go, I will send swarms of flies upon you, your courtiers, your people; and your houses. The houses of the Egyptians shall be filled with the swarms and so shall all the land they live in. Exodus 8.21
Of course the plagues of locusts are possibly the most dramatic inclusion of insects. Today plagues of locusts are destructive and can cause devastation but when the bible was written, the impact would have been far greater, the dark cloud being an omen of death through starvation. Of course, huge groups of locusts occur naturally and whilst it was seen at that time through a biblical eye, later in Europe at least, it would be seen through a legal eye.