“While most conventional charts, plans and diagrams claim to offer an accurate, even objective picture of the world, each one is bound by the specific agendas of its creators and users… Cartographies can be altered endlessly to reflect different priorities, hierarchies, experiences, points of view, and destinations.”
– Hans Ulrich Obrist
How we map the world reflects and influences how we see the world. Mapping is often about ownership and boundaries, they privilege particular aspects of the landscape. Open up an OS map and you’ll find the pubs and post offices and roads marked. You won’t find the rock where your ancestors gathered together or the plain where marriages and funerals took place. The dip that was known by a name which told a story has since had its meaning twisted and lost and is no longer considered map worthy.
What do we learn when we discover a road is called the A1? Not much, but call it the Great North Road and we’re already getting some information about orientation and length. In York, the A1036 is made up of roads which include Tadcaster Road, Nunnery Lane, Blossom Street, Malton Road, Tower Street, Barbican Road and Foss Islands Road. Without knowing anything about York, you can start to create an image. There is a high possibility there is, or was, a tower, some blossoming trees and a barbican, and by extension a castle or something in need of defending. You know that you’re headed to Tadcaster in one direction and Malton in another. You have a much better sense of where you are and what this place might be like than if you just know it’s the A1036.
“Conventional maps do not tell us what it means to be somewhere – the details of the landscapes we live in, the sounds of the trees and the birds, the long histories…”
– Adam Loften and Emmanuel Vaughan-Lee
North does not have to be at the top. Scale is not always necessary. Where are the stories of the land? The places that anchor us? The history that shapes the world? Why are most maps 2-d?
Maps do not show the life giving spring as more powerful than the pub, both are reduced to symbols and are stripped of their history. But it isn’t always this way, in Australia there are the song lines and in America a Zuni farmer is working with Zuni artists to recreate maps that return the indigenous voice and perspective to the land.
“Modern maps don’t have a memory”
– Jim Enote
Google maps, or the less popular hold in your hands version of the AA Road Map of Great Britain, have their uses, don’t get me wrong, I could happily play with maps all day. But to forget other ways of mapping is to forget other ways of knowing place. The AA map clearly centres itself around roads, google maps could be said to be more focused on businesses, both are potentially mapping placeless spaces. So with this in mind, we must also find other maps, maps which show us sense of place, show us memories and stories and sacred areas. Maps which show us tribal boundaries instead of colonialist ones.
When I was in Ghana, years ago, the village I was staying in was part of a tribe which had been artificially split in half when the Ghana-Togo boundary was enforced by colonialists. This boundary was inevitably ignored by the people who could walk, unchallenged, through mountain and jungle, to meet their kin. We went with them once, to a funeral. Hiked up a mountain, dense with vegetation and biting ants. Lots and lots of biting ants. We passed a small stone, less than the size of a piece of A4 paper, with an etched marking on it. This was the boundary. An arbitrary spot on the side of a mountain.
“A conventional map takes you to places – it will tell you how many miles and the fastest route. But the Zuni maps show these significant places that only a Zuni would know.”
– Ronnie Cachini
Maps are assumed to be factual, to be the truth. But this is far from the case. They portray a particular view of the land, one with particular markings and one with particular names. As the Spanish and British invaded the Americas, we changed place names and meaning was lost, and yet it is the colonial names which survive and are marked on the maps. Similarly, in Australia, place names were lost and replaced by those which honour murderous white men and their violent acts.
Maps are a none neutral reflection of their creators and in turn, the maps themselves create and perpetuate a way of viewing the world. To unpick this further, you could try creating a map of your local area from memory and then comparing it to google maps. What have you included that isn’t on google’s version? What have you left out or consciously excluded? Perhaps ask a friend to do this as well and compare your maps as a way of seeing through another person’s eyes.