Spring is coming and soon love will be in the air! Whether it’s the pheromones of animals or the pollen of plants, the air around us is positively brimming with the scent of reproduction.
Winged creatures like butterflies often engage in courtship flights, dancing around each other as part of a pre-copulation ritual. The courtship ritual of the bald eagle involves locking talons and tumbling toward earth… And then there are insects which engage in aerobatic sex, mid air, such as flies and dragonflies.
When it comes to humans (and other animals) we all have a unique smell, a chemical signature that we refer to as pheromones. They play a role in who we are attracted to which I think is fairly well known, but also, probably lesser known, is that they also help us to identify people we are related to – useful if you want to avoid sleeping with your secret cousin that no one knew about… Having different genetic make up means healthier children and less inbreeding which is why we’ve evolved to detect this. Couples which are more genetically similar have fewer orgasms which sounds pretty rubbish but things go one step further and couples who are more genetically alike also have a higher rate of cheating… Basically, evolution is doing everything it can to reduce the chance of inbreeding.
Pheromones are also used to help a guy to detect where in her menstrual cycle a woman is and his body releases testosterone according to ovulation status.
However, the use of hormonal contraception appears to be changing how humans react to these chemical signatures. When taking birth control pills, the natural ability to distinguish between males who are genetically alike and genetically different is disrupted and instead, women are attracted to the males who are most similar. Verdolin gives a great example:
“I was discussing this with my friend Stacey, who exclaimed, “That must be why I couldn’t stand the smell of my ex-husband!” She went on to explain that when she met her first husband she had been taking birth control pills. Several years into their marriage, after she discontinued the pill, not only was she unable to get pregnant, but she no longer cared for the smell of her husband.”
Aside: pheromones are found in underarm hair and public hair so maybe go au naturale if you’re seeking a partner?
Animals use pheromones to communicate with each other, to mark their territory and to induce aggression. They are also used in parental bonding, to keep group behaviour in check and of course to attract mates – some creatures can even smell out virgins. They are also used to mark your mate in order to keep away other potential mates. Squirrels secrete pheromones onto their partners onto their partner to tell other males that she’s taken. Queen bees use pheromones to control hive behaviour and stop workers from reproducing. Plants use pheromones to attract pollinators, for example a kind of orchid can mimic bee pheromones to pollinate them.
Male lemmings can not only sniff out a female who’s ready to mate, but they can also distinguish between those who have mated already and those who have not.
“From beetles to bees and lizards, females do give off a different scent if they have already mated or if they are ready to mate.”
A large number of male creatures will include anti-aphrodisiac pheromones in their bodily secretions so that the female they are mating will have less interest in sex. The pheromones can also make her less attractive to other males.
What of other ways that love is in the air? Well, plants can reproduce in a couple of ways, both involving the air; insect pollination and wind pollination. The latter means that large amounts of pollen are released to the breeze in the hope that they find another plant to fertilise. Whilst this does mean hayfever for many of us, it’s nice to think that it’s all in the aid of making baby trees and flowers!
- How animals communicate via pheromones
- Carin Bondar – The Nature of Sex
- Wild Connection by Jennifer L. Verdolin
- Plant reproduction